Interrelations between patterns of breathing and physical loading in middle-distance runners
A great number of scientists has been investigating into the problem of runners physical work capacity for a long time. During all these years they employed a lot of various methods, techniques and procedures. The most known as a substantiated approach to setting the task of solving this problem was a publication issued yet at the beginning of the 20th century by Archibald Hill, a Nobel prize winner, wherein he presented the problem as a dependence between the general speed attained in running the distance and the time spent for it.
Many researchers up to now find this interconnection so exciting that they are still trying to clarify the nature of the phenomena hidden behind its components. Nevertheless up now there is no any settled and generally acknowledged opinion concerning the essentials of this dependence.
The purpose of this study lies in further investigation into the patterns of breathing and heartbeat rates obtained at the intervals of short- and middle-distance running events. Methods and holding the investigation. The runners in question – (they where 20 males, aged from 16 to 27 years and qualified from the 1st sports category up to rank of the master of sport international class) – were registered for parametres of their external breathing (exhalation volume, rate of breathing and pulmonary ventilation). This work was done by means of a (SV3000) portable volumeter (of home production) during the period of every exhale, as well as the rate of breathing for an averaged interval of 5 second by means of a heartbeat monitor «Polar» (made in Finland).
Mask with the gauge Volumeter with the electronic block Some specialized software was used for determining the volumes of ventilation influx, oxygen debt, and oxygen demand for each exercise.
The results were registered by special program called Sport Volume (SV 3000.exe) Results of research. The analysed data revealed that for sprinting loads (up to 200 metres) all the external breathing values (such as the exhaled volume, rate of breathing and pulmonary ventilation) were practically within the figures registered at the resting level (figure 1). Apart from that it has been stated that even within 30 seconds after the loading exercises were discontinued level, and only after that a certain rise in the registered values was observed, which attained its uppermost level by the of end the second minute of rest. The heartbeat rate during this loading went up practically at the beginning of the testing procedure to attain its maximum at the resting period only. It should be noted also that the highest heart rate was only 169 beats per minute, while the pulmonary ventilation was 110 litres per minute.
One of the runners only who had practised sprint attained during this experiment such a high level as 350 litres per minute. Noteworthy is the fact the external breathing indices at distances of 400 metres and over went up at once at the beginning of the exercise, with the volume of exhale to be the first to reach its maximum values; while the majority of the runners were gradually developing the rate of breathing. The uppermost values for ventilation oxygen debt were registered after the distance of 400 metres was done with. During testing of runners at distances from 600 up to 2000 metres values of oxygen debt practically did not differ, but the amount of the ventilation demand increased along with the length of the distance covered.
1. When an athlete perfumes exercises at high intensity (for 200 and 400 metres heats) the pulmonary ventilation with all its composing parts can reach its maximum yet in the period of recovery after the exercise was completed. In the case of 200 metres run the indecses of the external breathing during the time of activity do not rise practically when we compare them with thought the level of rest. They attain their maximum yet in the period of recovery.
2. The pulmonary ventilation level values reach its maximum the period of exercise after the runner has covered 600 metres distance, while the heat rates reaches its maximum after passing in running the distance of 400 metres.
3. The uppermost values for ventilation oxygen debt were registered after the distance of 400 metres was done with. During testing of runners at distances from 600 up to 2000 metres values of oxygen debt practically did not differ, but the amount of the ventilation demand increased along with the length of the distance covered.
|Опубликовано 01.05.2020 00:17 | Просмотров: 294 | Блог » RSS|